cases could have caused Swedish factories to pay more attention to the work process while Finnish factory organizers paid more attention to the individual worker. American Indian Grammatical Categories. Today many followers of the universalist school of thought still oppose linguistic relativity. Crosslinguistic Differences in Temporal Language and Thought Language Learning, 58 (1 79, doi : Cook, Vivian; Bassetti, Benedetta (2010 Language and Bilingual Cognition, Hove: Psychology Press D'Andrade, Roy. The fact that what had been believed to be random differences between color naming in different languages could be shown to follow universal patterns was seen as a powerful argument against linguistic relativity. 6 The principle of linguistic relativity and the relation between language and thought has also received attention in varying academic fields from philosophy to psychology and anthropology, and it has also inspired and coloured works of fiction and the invention of constructed languages. Sapir's student, Benjamin Lee Whorf, came to be seen as the primary proponent as a result of his published observations of how he perceived linguistic differences to have consequences in human cognition and behavior. Alan Cruse., Walter de Gruyter, Berlin New York,.
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89 In popular culture edit Ted Chiang 's short story Story of Your Life developed the concept of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis as applied to an alien species which visits Earth. Among the criticisms of the strong form of the Hypothesis are: One of Whorf's central arguments in his paper on language determining thought was that the Hopi terminology for time gave the Hopi a different and unique understanding of how time worked, distinct from the. 85 Similarly, Sonja Lang's Toki Pona was developed according to a Taoist point of view for exploring how (or if) such a language would direct human thought. "Linguistic Relativity in Japanese and English: Is Language the Primary Determinant in Object Classification?". "The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: A Preliminary History and a Bibliographical Essay". 69 Recent research with non-linguistic experiments in languages with different grammatical properties (e.g., languages with and without numeral classifiers or with different gender grammar systems) showed that language differences in human categorization are due to such differences.