individuals but useful for groups, and that doesn't involve dispensing aid to relatives. Maynard Smith,., Szathmary,. These pathways need not be, and often will not be aligned, mutually consistent, or representable as operating at different levels in a hierarchy, but instead will often be cross-cutting and heterarchical. European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 12 1971, 149-178. Evolution of Fairness: Rereading the data. What resources or tools do you need to achieve that? Games, sex, and evolution.
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We could reply to advocates of group selection as Laplace replied to Napoleon when queried about why God was absent from Laplace's great book on celestial mechanics: "I have no need of that hypothesis.". No particular mechanism of inheritance is specified. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Group competition, reproductive leveling and the evolution of human altruism. Conversely, many forms of real-world altruism provide no advantage in group-against-group competitionparticularly compassion for the weak and needy, who are drags on military effectiveness and should be the first to be thrown overboard. In the limit, where selfishness and deceit can never be concealed (and not coincidentally, under the religious construction of an omniscient deity agents should be perfectly moral.
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