may steal your neighbor's cows to feed your family or "You may not steal your neighbor's cows to feed your family". Natural selection, kin selection, and group selection. Since cultural evolution manifestly includes the inheritance of acquired variation (if I learn something interesting, I can teach it to others defining natural selection in this way seems to exclude anything cultural from the effects of natural selection. 8 See ( Cosmides Tooby, 1992 ; McCullough, 2008 for reviews. Natural selection on large scale patterns of cultural variation is plausible because the cultural variation between neighboring groups that might compete is typically much larger than the genetic variation between the same groups (7). But they do so contingent on cues that their actions are observed by others 6,7,that their interactions may possibly continue 4,that the other has a reputation for good behavior 5,and upon other cues that cooperation will probabilistically return a benefit 8;this reveals the design.
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Moreover, reputations specify how much and when one should cooperate, but this varies from place to place. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. The organism is an agent, a large, well-integrated unit of action, whose sensory, motor and computational parts collude, often in highly complex ways, towards one endreproduction (strictly gene survival). Nature, 471 (7339 E5-E6. Of course it could be argued that we only vote to enhance our reputation as a good citizen, but since who votes is normally not public information, and one's voting history of little interest to employers and other social intimates, this is not a very. As I noted above, cmls is much more than a metaphor; it yields quantitative predictions that can be (and have been) tested with historical data. In the case of language, they are the lexical and grammatical analyses by which listeners make sense of the speech of others; in the case of violence, they are ideologies by which people justify their collective actions, such as religions, Marxism, nationalism, utilitarianism, enlightenment humanism. Politically active and informed citizens appear to operate on the principle that voting is both a duty and prerogative of citizenship, an altruistic act that is justified by the categorical imperative: act in conformance with the morally correct behavior for individuals in one's position, without.
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